Key Definitions In Kenya's National CVE Strategy

Al Qaedaism


Al Qaedaism is a theological-political-military ideology based on militant Salafi-Jihadism that seeks to overthrow governments in Muslim-majority countries, and subjugate non-Muslims and realign the global order in favour of a fanatical, violent and politicised Islam.




Counter Radicalisation


Counter Radicalisation refers to efforts to delegitimise violent extremist ideologies and to deter recruitment into specific terrorist groups or campaigns.




Countering Violent Extremism


Countering Violent Extremism is the employment of non-coercive means to reduce the conditions conducive to the spread of violent extremist ideologies and recruitment into terrorism.[1]

[1] UNSC Counter Terrorism Committee - https://www.un.org/sc/ctc/focus-areas/countering-violent-extremism/




De-radicalisation


De-radicalisation refers to concerted efforts directed at radicalised individuals at different stages of the extremist ‘lifecycle’: i.e. immediately before joining a group or network, as active members, or following their exit. The efforts seek to stop involvement in violence or to change attitudes and assumptions.[1]

[1] Neumann P.R., “Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalisation that Lead to Terrorism: Ideas, Recommendations and Good Practices from the OSCE Region”, International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (ICSR), Kings College London, September 2017, pp. 20-21.




Devoted Actors


Devoted Actors are people willing to protect or advance morally important or sacred values through costly sacrifice and extreme actions, even being willing to kill and die, particularly when such values are embedded in or fused with group identity: “Who I am” and “Who We are.”




Disengagement


refers to individual and collective groups’ physical and psychological cessation of acts of terrorism.




The Do no Harm Principle


The Do no Harm Principle is a humanitarian principle that demands that actors should not cause injury or harm to the intended targets of the interventions. It obligates the actors to consider the broader context of their actions and mitigate potential negative effects on individuals as well as the social fabric, the economy and the environment.




Extremism


Extremism is an acquired system of ideas that compels hostility by a group against another group of persons on the basis of their distinct identity. Such hostility includes the promotion and glorification of fanatical opposition, discrimination, hate, dehumanisation, or violence against the target group.




Group radicalisation


Group radicalisation is based on an intensifying division and sense of threat between perceived in- and out-groups. It often precedes individual radicalisation into extremism.




Harm


Harm according to the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2012, it: (i) involves the use of violence against a person; (ii) endangers the life of a person, other than the person committing the action; (iii) creates a serious risk to the health or safety of the public or a section of the public; (iv) results in serious damage to property.




Ideology


Ideology is a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy. Or it can be a set of beliefs characteristic of a social group or individual.




Indoctrination


Indoctrination is the process of teaching a person or group to accept a set of beliefs uncritically.




Radicalisation into extremism


Radicalisation into extremism – is the individual or group process of acquiring, through texts and narratives, a system of ideas and ideals that glorify hostility, discrimination, fanaticism, hatred, and enmity against a group or groups on the basis of their identity, and that can be the basis for organised militant action




Rehabilitation


Rehabilitation is a process that aims to ensure that disengaged and de-radicalised violent extremists and terrorists are given the counselling, critical reasoning tools, knowledge and gender appropriate interventions to shift their mind-sets and enable them to be peaceful and law-abiding citizens




Reintegration


Reintegration refers to actions that support the social, ideological, psychological, and economic well-being of rehabilitated individuals and address the gender specific challenges faced by male or female returnees as they return to live with their families and communities.




Self-radicalisation


Self-radicalisation refers to the process whereby an individual becomes a violent extremist without any specific terrorist group engaging him directly; it often occurs through access to extremist propaganda via media and the Internet.




A Terrorist Act


A Terrorist Act according to the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2012, is the use or threat of violence to intimidate or cause fear amongst members of the public, or a section of the public, to compel the actions or non-actions of the Government, or international organisation, and to deliberately aim to destabilise Kenya’s religious, political, constitutional, economic or social institutions.




Terrorism


Refer to POTA 2012 definition of ‘terrorist act’.




Violent Extremism


Violent Extremism is the ideological commitment to violent or militant action against the members of a group that, on the basis of its identity, has been the target of hostilities ranging from discrimination, hate, enmity and dehumanisation.





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